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susanThe resources listed below represent a collection of scientific articles discussing research on the overall effects of chronic, low-grade, metabolic acidosis on health. These sources provide a useful collection of observations for those interested in expanding their understanding of the health impacts of pH imbalance and the importance of acid-alkaline balance.

Alonso, A., de la Fuente, C., et al. (2004). Fruit and vegetable consumption is inversely associated with blood pressure in a Mediterranean population with a high vegetable-fat intake: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Study. Br J Nutr 92(2): 311-9. PMID: 15333163

Alpern, R.J., Sakhaee, K. (1997). The clinical spectrum of chronic metabolic acidosis: homeostatic mechanisms produce significant morbidity. Am J Kidney Dis 29(2): 291-302. PMID: 9016905

Berardi, J. M., A. C. Logan, and A. V. Rao. (2008). Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 5:20.

Brüngger, M., H. N. Hulter, and R. Krapf. (1997). Effect of chronic metabolic acidosis on the growth hormone/IGF-1 endocrine axis: New cause of growth hormone insensitivity in humans. Kidney Int 51(1):216-21.

Bushinsky, D.A. (2002). Recurrent hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis—does diet help? N Engl J Med 346(2): 124-5. PMID: 11784880

Ceglia, L., S. Harris, S. Abrams, et al. (2009). Potassium bicarbonate attenuates the urinary nitrogen excretion that accompanies an increase in dietary protein and may promote calcium absorption. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94(2): 645-653.

Coppoolse, R., T. J. Barstow, W.W. Stringer, et al. (1997). Effect of acute bicarbonate administration on exercise responses of COPD patients. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29: 725-732.

Cordain, L., S. B. Eaton, et al. (2005). Origins and evolution of the Western diet: Health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr 81:341-54.

Cordain, L., Miller, J.B., et al. (2000). Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets. Am J Clin Nutr 71(3): 682-92. PMID: 10702160

De Brito-Ashurst, I., M. Varagunam, et al. (2009). Bicarbonate supplementation slows progression of CKD and improves nutritional status. J Am Soc Nephrol 20(9):2075-84.

Demigné, C. (2006). Could minor cations and anions or other constituents such as fibers, contribute to the alkalinising properties of plant foods? 2nd International Acid-Base Symposium, Munich, 8 – 9 September.

Eaton, S. B. and M. Konner. 1985. Paleolithic nutrition—A consideration of its nature and current implications. New Engl. J Med 312:283–289.

Demigne, C. Could minor cations and anions or other constituents such as fibers, contribute to the alkalinising properties of plant foods? 2nd International Acid-Base Symposium: Nutrition – Health – Disease, Welhenstephan, Germany. http://www.saeure-basen-forum.de/pdf/symp2006/abstracts/Demign_Christian.pdf

Eaton, S.B., Eaton, S.B., 3rd (2000). Paleolithic vs. modern diets—selected pathophysiological implications. Eur J Nutr 39(2): 67-70. PMID: 10918987

Farr, M., Garvey, K., et al. (1985). Significance of the hydrogen ion concentration in synovial fluid in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 3(2): 99-104. PMID: 4017318

Feely, R. A., Sabine, C.L., et al. (2004). Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans. Science 305(5682): 362-6. PMID: 15256664

Frangiosa, A., L.S. DeSanto, P. Anastasio, et al. (2006). Acid-base balance in heart failure. J Nephrol 19(9 Suppl): S115-S120.

Frassetto, L. A., R.C. Morris, Jr., and A. Sebastian. (2007). Dietary sodium chloride intake independently predicts the degree of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in healthy humans consuming a net acid-producing diet. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 93: 521-525.

Frassetto, L. A., M. Schloetter, et al. (2009). Metabolic and psysiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet. Eur J Clin Nutr 63(8):947-55.

Frassetto, L., Morris, R.C. Jr., et al. (2001). Diet, evolution and aging. The pathophysiologic effects of the post-agricultural inversion of the potassium-to-sodium and base-to-chloride ratios in the human diet. Eur J Nutr 40(5): 200-13. http://www.saeure-basen-forum.de/pdf/symp2001/frassetto.pdf

Gonick, H. C., Goldberg, G., et al. (1968). Reexamination of the acid-ash content of several diets. Am J Clin Nutr 21(9): 898-903. PMID: 5675852

Guyton, A. C. 1961 Textbook of medical physiology. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Hosch, M., Muser, J., Hulter, H.N., Krapf, R. (2004). Ureagenesis: evidence for a lack of hepatic regulation of acid-base equilibrium in humans. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol (286): F94-9. PMID: 14656759

Hunt, J. R., L. K. Johnson, and Z. K. Fariba Roughead. (2009). Dietary protein and calcium interact to influence calcium retention: A controlled feeding study. Am J Clin Nutr 89:1357-65.

Jaffe, R. (2000). Autoimmunity and cofactor replacement. Int J Integr Med 2(2).

Kiwull-Schone, H., Kalhoff, H., et al. (2001). Minimal-invasive approach to study pulmonary, metabolic and renal responses to alimentary acid-base changes in conscious rabbits. Eur J Nutr 40(5): 255-9. http://www.saeure-basen-forum.de/pdf/symp2001/kiwull_schoene.pdf

Lemann, Jr., J., R.W. Gray, and J.A. Pleuss. (1989). Potassium bicarbonate, but not sodium bicarbonate, reduces urinary calcium excretion and improves calcium balance in healthy men. Kidney Int 35: 688-695.

Lofberg, E., A. Gutierrez, B. Anderstam, et al. (2006). Effect of bicarbonate on muscle protein in patients receiving hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 48: 419-429.

Lukaski, H.C. (2005). Low dietary zinc decreases erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase activities and impairs cardiorespiratory function in men during exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 81(5): 1045-51. PMID: 15883427

Maalouf, N.M., M.A. Cameron, O.W. Moe, et al. (2007). Low urine pH: A novel feature of the metabolic syndrome. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2: 883-888.

Manz, F., Remer, T., et al. (1995). Effects of a high protein intake on renal acid excretion in bodybuilders. Z Ernahrungswiss 34(1): 10-5. PMID: 7785291

Martin, H.E., Wertman, M. (1947). Serum potassium, magnesium, and calcium levels in diabetic acidosis. J Clin Invest 26(2): 217-28. PMID: 16695408

McCarty, M. (2005). Acid-base balance may influence risk for insulin resistance syndrome by modulating cortisol output. Med Hypotheses 64: 380-384. PMID: 15607573

Mitch, W.E., R. Medina, S. Grieber, et al. (1994). Metabolic acidosis stimulates muscle protein degradation by activating the adenosine triphosphate-dependent pathway involving ubiquitin and proteasomes. J Clin Invest 93: 2127-2133.

Morris, R.C., Jr., Sebastian, A. (2002). Alkali therapy in renal tubular acidosis: who needs it? J Am Soc Nephrol 13(8): 2186-8. PMID: 12138154

Pizzorno, J., L. A. Frassetto, and J. Katzinger. (2010). Diet-induced acidosis: Is it real and clinically relevant? Br J Nutr 103(8):1185-94.

Queen, S. (1994). Free radical therapy: part IV: acidemia and free calcium excess. Health Realities Journal.

Relman, A.S., Lennon, E.J., et al. (1961). Endogenous production of fixed acid and the measurement of the net balance of acid in normal subjects. J Clin Invest 40: 1621-30. PMID: 13740723

Remer, T., Manz, F. (2003). Paleolithic diet, sweet potato eaters, and potential renal acid load. Am J Clin Nutr 78(4): 802-3; author reply 803-4. PMID: 14522740

Robergs, R.A., Ghiasvand, F., et al. (2004). Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287(3): R502-16. PMID: 15308499

Sabine, C.L., Feely, R.A., et al. (2004). The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2. Science 305(5682): 367-71. PMID: 15256665

Spiller, G.A., Bruce, B. (1998). Vegan diets and cardiovascular health [editorial; comment]. J Am Coll Nutr 17(5): 407-8. PMID: 9791835

Stratton-Phelps, M., House, J.K. (2004). Effect of a commercial anion dietary supplement on acid-base balance, urine volume, and urinary ion excretion in male goats fed oat or grass hay diets. Am J Vet Res 65(10): 1391-7. PMID: 15524326

Ströhle, A., A. Hahn, and A. Sebastian. (2010). Latitude, local ecology, and hunter-gatherer dietary acid load: Implications from evolutionary ecology. Am J Clin Nutr 92(4):940-5.

Vormann, J., Worlitschek, M., et al. (2001). Supplementation with alkaline minerals reduces symptoms in patients with chronic low back pain. J Trace Elem Med Biol 15(2-3): 179-83. PMID: 11787986

Weisinger, J.R., Favus, M.J., et al. (1989). Regulation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 by calcium in the parathyroidectomized, parathyroid hormone-replete rat. J Bone Miner Res 4(6): 929-35. PMID: 2610024

Wenzel, U. E. A. (2000). Membrane transport proteins and their role in acid base homeostasis. Acid-Base Metabolism: Nutrition – Health – Disease, Welhenstephan, Germany.

Whiting, S.J. and J.A. Muirhead. (2005). Measurement of net acid excretion by use of paper strips. Nutrition 21: 961-963.

Wiederkehr, M. R., J. Kalogiros; and R. Krapf. (2004). Correction of metabolic acidosis improves thyroid and growth hormone axes in haemodialysis patients. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 19(5): 1190-97.

Wiederseiner, J. M., J. Muser, T. Lutz, H. N. Hulter, and R. Krapf. (2004). Acute metabolic acidosis: Characterization and diagnosis of the disorder and the plasma potassium response. J Am Soc Nephrol 15: 1589-1596.

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